Nedoseko Ol’ga Ivanovna, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of biology, geography and chemistry, Arzamas Branch of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (36 K. Marxa street, Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia), email@example.com
Viktorov Vladimir Pavlovich, Doctor of biological sciences, associate professor, head of sub-department of botany, Moscow State Pedagogical University (1/1 Malaya Pirogovskaya street, Moscow, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. To prevent rapid reduction of the Earth’s forest cover it is necessary to research in detail life peculiarities of individual trees and shrubs, as well froms and architechtonics of arboreal species’ crowns facilitates this aspire. The aim of the work is to reveal a structural and functional organization of crowns of the boreal species of willow subgenera Salix and Vetrix.
Materials and methods. Architectural modules were studied using the method designed by the authors based on three indications: branching type, size of innovation shoot die-off area, longevity of vegetative parts of reproductive shoots. Using the said methodology the authors examined the following willow spicies: two specias of Salix subgenus and 6 species of Vetrix subgenus.
Results. Among the examined species there were marked out four architectural odules in total: a module developing on the basis of acrotony with one-phase deciduous aments; a module developing on the basis of acrotony with two-phase deciduous aments; a module developing on the basis of mesotony with two-phase deciduous aments; a module developing on the basis of basitony with two-phase deciduous aments. It has been discovered that each group of willows relating to different life forms (trees and tall shrubs, medium-sized shrubs, low shrubs) is distinguished by its own architectural module. Female specimens of each species (except Sálix acutifólia) have a greater diversity of three-year shoot systems (TSS) compared to male specimens. Counting of assimilating (one-year) shoots in TSS compositions has led to a result that female specimens have 1,3–1,7 times more of such shoots then male ones. An analysis of TSS with one-year shoots developed from latent buds has shown that such occur 3–6 times more often among low shrubs than trees.
Conclusions. Architectural modules are conditional on die-off intensity of upper shoot metameres, a branching type associated with the said intensity, as well as longevity of vegetative parts of reproductive shoots. Architectural modules have gender differences displayed by a greater branching degree and a greater number of oneyear assimilating shoots of female specimens. Crowns of female and male specimens of trees and tall shrubs have upper, medium and lower branches that differ qualitatively (by a number of architectural types of TSS) and quantitativel (a share of participation of architectural types of TSS): the greatest number of architectural types is typical for upper and medium model branches, and the smallest – for lower ones.
1. Skvortsov A. K. Ivy SSSR (sistematicheskiy i geograficheskiy obzor) [Willows of USSR (a systematic and geographical review)]. Moscow: Nauka, 1968, 255 p.
2. Valyagina-Malyutina E. T. Ivy evropeyskoy chasti Rossii [Willows of the eauropean part of Russia]. Moscow, 2004, 217 p.
3. Mazurenko M. T. Byulleten' Botanicheskogo sada-instituta DVO RAN [Bulletin of the Botanical garden-institute of the Far East Branch of RAS]. 2010, iss. 7, pp. 4–22.
4. Afonin A. A. Izmenchivost' iv bryanskogo lesnogo massiva i perspektivy ikh selektsii na ustoychivost' i produktivnost': avtoref. dis. d-ra sel'skokhoz. nauk [Variability of willows of Bryansk forestland and prospects of their resistence and productivity selection: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of agricultural sciences]. Bryansk, 2006, 46 p.
5. Serebryakova T. I. Byulleten' Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytateley prirody. Otdel biologicheskiy [Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists. Biological division]. 1977, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 112–125.
6. Serebryakova T. I. Zhiznennye formy: struktura, spektry i evolyutsiya [Lofe forms: structure, range and evolution]. Moscow: Nauka, 1981, pp. 161–179.
7. Halle F., Oldeman R. A. Essay sur 1’architecture et la dynamique de crossianci de arbretropicaux [An essay on the architecture and growth dynamics of tropical trees]. Paris, 1970, 210 p.
8. Halle F. XII Mezhdunarodnyy botanicheskiy kongress: tez. dokl. [XII International botanical congress: report theses]. Leningrad: Nauka, 1975, vol. 1, 216 p.
9. Tomlinson P. B. Tropical trees as living systems. Ed. by P. B. Tomlinson, M. H. Zimmerman. Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 187–207.
10. Barthelemy D., Caraglio Y. Ann. Bot. 2007, vol. 99, pp. 375–407.
11. Antonova I. S., Azova O. V. Botanicheskiy zhurnal [Botanical journal]. 1999, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 10–32.
12. Fedorova T. A. Morfologiya sotsvetiy [Inflorescence morphology]. Moscow: Izd-vo MGU, 2006, 98 p.
13. Timonin A. K. Botanika: v 4 t. T. 3. Vysshie rasteniya: ucheb. dlya vyssh. ucheb. zavedeniy [Higher plants: textbook for universities]. Moscow: Akademkniga, 2007, 352 p.
14. Kostina M. V. Generativnye pobegi drevesnykh pokrytosemennykh rasteniy umerennoy zony: avtoref. dis. d-ra biol. nauk [Reproductive shoots of woody angiosperm plants of the temperate zone: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of biological sciences]. Moscow, 2009, 40 p.
15. Antonova I. S. Trudy IX Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii po ekologicheskoy morfologii rasteniy, posvyashchennoy pamyati I. G. i T. I. Serebryakovykh (k 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya I. G. Serebryakova) [Proceedings of IX International conference on ecological morphology of plants, commemorating I. G. and T. I. Serebryakovs (devoted to the 100th jubilee of I. G. Serebryakov)]. Moscow, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 48–51.
16. Getmanets I. A. Ekologicheskoe raznoobrazie i biomorfologiya roda Salix L. Yuzhnogo Urala: dis. d-ra biol. nauk [Ecological diversity and biomorphology of the genus Salix L. of the South Ural: dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of biological sciences]. Chelyabinsk, 2011, 330 p.
17. Nedoseko O. I. Trudy IX Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii po ekologicheskoy morfologii rasteniy, posvyashchennoy pamyati I. G. i T. I. Serebryakovykh (k 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya I. G. Serebryakova) [Proceedings of IX International conference on ecological morphology of plants, commemorating I. G. and T. I. Serebryakovs (devoted to the 100th jubilee of I. G. Serebryakov)]. Moscow, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 326–329.
18. Nedoseko O. I. Vestnik Kazakhskogo natsional'nogo universiteta. Seriya ekologicheskaya [Bulletin of Kazakh National University. Series: Ecology]. 2015, no. 2/2 (44), pp. 673–678.
19. Nedoseko O. I., Viktorov V. P. Sotsial'no-ekologicheskie tekhnologii [Social and ecological technologies]. 2016, no. 2, pp. 39–50.